Tessa Roberts

Aug 12, 2019

The Ultimate Guide to Headless Commerce

Thanks to the web and the Internet of Things (IoT), today’s digital landscape is more focused on the consumer than ever before.

Expectations have changed how we conduct business, making some processes easier while presenting challenges for organizations.

Organizations that rely on ecommerce as a core part of their business model need to adapt to keep a competitive edge – as such, many are transitioning to headless commerce for digital delivery.

Skip straight to 

 What is headless commerce?
 Why is headless commerce becoming more popular?
 Benefits of headless commerce
 Headless commerce vs. traditional
 Headless commerce use cases
 Headless commerce architecture
 How Bloomreach works with commercetools

But What Actually is Headless Commerce Architecture?

We talked to Dirk Hoerig, CEO at commercetools and a key innovator in the headless commerce space, to understand how he understood the term:

"When it comes to headless commerce we’re talking about an ecommerce solution where the frontend – the “head” – has been decoupled, leaving only the backend," explains Dirk, "A headless commerce architecture focuses purely on background processes, making data available to separate frontend applications via commerce APIs.

That’s why a headless commerce platform gives companies the full potential of best-in-class online retail without the boundaries to specific touchpoints and ensuring a great user experience," he adds. 

headless commerce dirk hoerig

"A true headless commerce platform provides robust commerce capability such as shopping cart, product information management, promotions, and merchant tools no matter the customer entry point. On top of that, it can easily connect – via API – to any customer experience front-end."

Why is Headless Commerce Becoming More Popular?

 Higher Expectations from Customers

The modern era of business has brought many conveniences to the customer. As a consumer, the ability to access and enjoy whatever you desire can be accomplished with just a few clicks or taps.

"Customer expectations have increased regarding availability, frictionless shopping, product and service quality, and many other things," according to Dirk Hoerig

This has put pressure on retailers and other businesses to deliver goods and services as quickly as possible which is why headless commerce is becoming a necessity.

 More Channels Available to Interact with Customers

A great digital strategy for sellers involves reaching as many people through as many channels as possible.

Headless commerce has the capability to deliver products and services directly to consumers in any format without the limitations plaguing traditional designs.

Transitioning or expanding commerce with headless architecture enables businesses to reach a broader audience and substantially increase sales. Therefore, it's essential for businesses to shift to a headless commerce system.

As Dirk Hoerig puts it, "customer interaction drifted away from the desktop which was – for more than a decade – the only eCommerce sales channel. Shopping today is as mobile as the buyer, and is expected on practically every touchpoint."

 Stay Ahead of Competitors

"These two changes required a completely different response from brands and retailers to stay competitive," says Dirk, "Nowadays, retailers need to support more devices, provide outstanding and tailored customer experiences, and, last but not least, they have to become faster and more flexible with the technologies that enable all that. However, commerce platforms from the past are very inflexible as they were built to solve other challenges.

"The reason everyone’s talking about headless is that the architecture allows the separation of commerce functionality and performance from the user experience, enabling companies to provide the best of breed shopping experiences to their customers."

Benefits of Headless Commerce

In the early days of ecommerce, virtually all traffic from buyers came from desktop systems.

The systems that ran commerce sites were mostly of coupled (or traditional) designs, meaning the backend and frontend were closely tethered.

Interdependent code didn’t prove to be as much of a challenge as it is today – the most pressing issue for web developers involved making slight alterations to presentation elements to accommodate different browsers.

headless commerce dirk hoerig quote

Over the years several changes have come to technology that interfaces with the web – there are substantially more devices in circulation, the amount of data transmitted has increased, security is more robust, and there are far more ways to access information than just desktop browsers.

Statistically speaking, you’re likely reading this piece on a mobile device! 📱

Headless commerce architecture allows a business to keep backend systems – such as the content management system (CMS), product inventory, customer relation management (CRM) system, payment processing, digital asset management (DAM) and others – separate from each other as well as the endpoints for layout.

Even though a headless commerce system and its system separation can lead to increased complexity, it also offers multiple advantages such as:

 Microservices Architecture

 Improved Security

 Flexible Frontend

 Fast Deployment

 Easily adaptable around consumer preference

headless commerce benefits

In a headless design, the API acts as the core of these systems and pulls the required information into different channels where it is optimized for layout.

Headless commerce is a lightweight method for the transmission of data between systems, meaning this provides the best possible performance of any architecture.

The days of one-size fits all delivery method for content and commerce are over – today’s consumers access information from a wide variety of sources.

This requires ecommerce retailers to adopt a system and process for true omnichannel delivery. As such, the topic of headless commerce vs traditional commerce becomes a serious matter for digital merchants.

📌 Read this next: CMS - A Critical Solution for Today’s eCommerce [guide]

A headless system allows retailers to easily scale to deliver content and merchandise or services to multiple endpoints.

A lightweight API controls the transmission of data between systems – content, products, customer information, financials, and other systems reside in separate systems, free from any code that limits frontend development. 

Headless Commerce vs Traditional 

Compared to legacy systems, a headless system can:

 Easily scale to reach new touchpoints – 

Frontend developers can pull content from backend systems with the API and use frameworks as they see fit for delivery and layout.

When something new emerges or business decides to capitalize on an underutilized existing channel, developers can create custom delivery models to get content and products to these endpoints.

 Deliver content faster – 

Despite having more systems in the mix for headless commerce, the API can be used to push and pull data, unencumbered by other processes or code.

Frontends or optional “heads” use API calls to pull content needed and nothing more. Resources aren’t shared, which is typically why coupled systems slow down during times of peak traffic.

 Offer improved security – 

In any networked environment, business systems should be as separate as possible with finely tuned access control lists (ACLs) to limit access from other systems or users.

Headless commerce inherently relies on different systems working together, which eliminates the possibility of a compromised account wreaking complete havoc.

Design Differences Between Traditional and Headless Systems

The greatest advantage that traditional commerce offers is rooted in the fact that everything is packaged together.

Most systems are easy to set up and run using pre-included tools. However, this is also the biggest drawback of traditional (i.e. coupled) systems.

Looking at the architecture for most traditional systems, there is a backend database that not only stores content but code for layout and other plugins used by the frontend of the system.

This heavily limits the amount of customization that can be accomplished. While some elements can be edited or tweaked, this often comes with a cost as it is time-consuming and can lead to “breaks” when a critical, underlying code is altered for design or functionality.

Limitations of Traditional Systems

Because of the “all-inclusive” design that defines traditional commerce systems, retailers and developers experience the following limitations:

 Curbed frameworks – 

A traditional system is typically limited to the framework on which it is built. Developers are bound to corresponding toolsets which can hinder layout, delivery, and functionality.

 Reduced security – 

Admins and content creators all access the system through the same console which greatly increases data-related risks.

While authors and editors accounts can be configured with limited privileges, breached accounts with elevated or full admin privileges could allow unauthorized users access to everything from content, customer records, payment information, and more.

 Limited design capabilities – 

This is another area where a set framework hinders the commerce experience.

Though themes and layout can be manually modified, the fact these systems rely on multiple layers of code means unintended consequences may happen as a result. This makes it far more difficult to properly deliver content to many channels.

 Difficulty with integrations – 

Developers can make plugins (or sometimes purchase pre-existing solutions) to interface with outside systems, but the experience usually isn’t nearly as seamless as what an API in a headless commerce system can provide.

Hence, some need to use another process – such as manual entry – to port inventory or customer information into the backend which can be time-consuming.

How Headless Commerce Overcomes These Limitations

Headless commerce circumvents these problems by using the API as the core to interface with separate business systems.

Admins can lockdown each system by only authorizing those who require access to any given machine as well as limit the amount of data available to the API.

As there is no code intertwined with the backend database that stores content, frontend developers are free to adapt endpoint layout using the optimal framework.

This means the content and products aren’t restricted to just the sites or apps for which it’s intended – a touchpoint can be any device connected to the web.

headless commerce monolith vs api driven architecture

Retailers can enjoy the advantages of true omnichannel design by developing custom layouts in much less time it takes to scale a coupled system to accomplish the same feat.

This further accommodates A/B testing that can be analyzed against customer interaction to determine the most effective means for layout and functionality.

When one design proves to convert more users into buyers, the less effective system can be decommissioned in favor of the better design.

One of the only real disadvantages of a true headless system is the lack of available tools for marketers.

📌 Read this next: A Marketer's Guide to CMS [whitepaper]

This means that editing and previewing portions of content usually isn’t possible without the aid of a developer which can slow down development teams.

At Bloomreach, we solved the most glaring issue of headless commerce with the Bloomreach Experience Manager (brXM)

This tool exists is part of our “head optional” design that puts more control in the hands of marketers by offering solutions for users to interact with content and portions of the headless platform without compromising delivery or security.

📌 Watch this next: How Aruba Tourism Transitioned to a Headless Architecture  [webinar]

Headless Commerce Use Cases

Now let’s look at a few scenarios where headless commerce helps businesses reach broader audiences.

 Headless commerce can be personalized for different regions – 

Appeals to value will change, depending on the geolocation, so messaging behind products or services need to match the intended audience.

By creating subsets of page content for apps and sites in the backend of a headless CMS, this allows different, region-specific channels to pull matching messaging for any given audience.

The resulting connection from tailored messaging increases successful conversion, meaning higher revenue.

📌 Read this next: 2019 Online Personalization in eCommerce  [report]

 Headless commerce helps to overcome language obstacles – 

While translating through Google or other translation engines can be helpful in a pinch, allowing these systems to translate professional web content usually produces a less than ideal outcome.

For example, the English language often requires infinitive modifiers for verbs, so when software translates certain phrases to languages like French, the translation can be awkward.

Headless commerce allows content creators to accurately translate languages prior to content distribution as well as encode content with the proper characters or alphabet.

 Headless commerce enables formatting for different delivery methods – 

This is perhaps the most important feature of headless commerce as today there are extensive conversion opportunities found in many different devices and application.

Of course, not all have the goal of completing a standard sale – some organizations are looking for followers (i.e. registered users) while others are simply looking to spread information.

Endpoints can be adapted to funnel viewers into systems that provide them with the information or resources they’re seeking from your organization.

 Headless commerce provides integration with other systems – 

In many cases, businesses may use headless commerce with a decoupled kind of frontend or even with a traditional system.

Businesses can also opt to make use of a coupled system on a specific channel as traditional systems make ideal endpoints in certain circumstances.

Too, businesses can opt to use “head optional” systems like the Bloomreach Experience Manager (brXM) which allows marketers to interact with content, rather than solely relying on IT to make changes.

📌 Read this next: Bloomreach Architecture Overview [whitepaper]

What is a Headless Commerce Architecture?

Part of building a headless commerce architecture includes a headless CMS.

From a high-level perspective, a headless CMS for any purpose (including commerce) has distinguishable parts.

The backend database includes different kinds of content such as written copy and images.

However, headless commerce requires a few additional systems compared to headless designs that simply deliver content.

Headless commerce uses a separate inventory management system in conjunction with the backend database that stores the content.

Other backend systems usually include customer relationship management systems (CRMs), payment processing platforms, multi-channel security systems, and others.

Here, the API becomes responsible for pulling information into specific systems after certain actions are complete, rather than just providing content to different channels.

For example, let’s say a user is viewing a product on a mobile browser and makes a purchase.

If they’re a new customer, they would fill out a form which is used to update the business CRM.

Too, this information might come from a platform like PayPal, Google Pay, Apple Pay, or some other service to expedite the checkout process.

After the transaction is complete, backend systems are updated by the API calling on data to log the financial exchange, update the inventory system, and store the customer information.

Differences Between Headless vs Other CMS Architectures for Commerce

A traditional or coupled CMS functions as one integrated system where the backend that stores content and product information is tethered to the frontend which is responsible for the layout.

These systems often rely on a fixed framework as the code is usually attached to content or products on the backend. 

This limits capabilities as developers are often restricted to certain frameworks, yet the design makes it relatively simple for novice users and startups to begin their digital presence with minimal work.

In these designs, your products and content are usually managed by a tool (e.g. Shopify, WooCommerce, etc.) These tools provide authoring and preview option which help with authoring portion but they’re heavily limited in delivery and layout options.

📌 Watch this next: Go Headless to Win in Commerce [video]

A decoupled CMS has a separate backend but often integrates with a full frontend that ultimately pushes content into channels. While this makes content more agnostic, the frontend framework can limit delivery to certain channels, as with traditional CMS systems.

A headless CMS removes the “head” which gives front-end developers the flexibility to pull content using an API to any endpoint. As the backend simply stores content, this prevents limitations to delivery caused by code in other designs. 

In headless commerce architecture, developers can freely use content from the backend of a headless CMS and products stored in a headless commerce system.

While this does typically remove marketing tools and preview capabilities, we offer solutions at Bloomreach that solve this problem by providing a “head” option that gives publishers the tools they need to effectively interact with content at any endpoint.

📌Read this next: CaaS - What Is Content-as-a-Service? [blog]

How does Headless Commerce Architecture Work?

A lightweight API inherently enables the delivery of content stored in a backend system to far more channels than a “theme” would provide as these are generally only optimized for specific endpoints.

With a headless commerce architecture, the API can be used to pull information anywhere, including wearable tech, car commerce, IoT devices (e.g. smart appliances, TVs, Amazon’s Alexa, etc.), kiosks, apps running on any platform, social networks, and more.

headless commerce bloomreach commerce platform

This future-proof design essentially ensures that ecommerce delivery can scale to accommodate innovative products that will surface in the future.

📌 Learn now: How to incorporate search into a headless architecture [blog]

Unlike a setup designed for just content delivery, headless commerce architecture requires an inventory system to manage products.

Inventory systems might connect with vendors, suppliers, or wholesalers, depending on the nature of the distribution network.

Too, it might connect with company-owned distribution centers, allowing businesses to ship from local warehouses and save money.

Businesses will also require additional backend systems for successful digital commerce. Organizations greatly increase sales through repeat business by tracking customer preferences with a CRM and using data science tools to better understand their customers.

By building out a database and using analytics to investigate preferences and patterns, this provides insight allows businesses to better connect with existing customers as well as understand buying patterns for broader demographics.

Of course, a secure payment system is necessary for selling on the web as well – some companies build their own, but most opt to integrate existing, secure platforms to handle payments.

Once a transaction is complete, the API in a headless commerce architecture facilitates communication between inventory management, payment processing, the CRM, and certain other systems to update records accordingly. 

The API in headless commerce architectures allows information to be shared seamlessly among systems for a true omnichannel retail environment.

📌 Read this next:  Merging Content & Commerce - A Deep Dive Into Headless Commerce [whitepaper]

The main limitations rest on the shoulders of front-end developers’ abilities to create a fitting user experience for each frontend. On the plus side, this means less development on the backend as the API in most designs can freely move data between a wide variety of existing systems.

As such, headless commerce architecture works best with systems that use open databases that can be easily queried.

Frontend developers can easily use this stripped-down information with frameworks like Angular or React.

By using APIs such as those offered by Bloomreach, this solves the main problem of marketers being overly reliant on web developers to make edits for content or layout. This also removes the want or need to include a second, coupled CMS for WYSIWYG capabilities. 

How Does Bloomreach Work with commercetools?

commercetools provides a headless commerce platform that connects to all frontends and applications. Bloomreach Experience, the headless experience cloud, integrates with commercetools's platform with the aim of shaving 6-8 months off implementations.

We interviewed Dirk Hoerig, CEO and Co-Founder commercetools, to learn his opinion on headless commerce.

What makes commercetools stand out in the headless commerce space?
"commercetools is the only enterprise software company that has built a headless commerce platform from scratch to support these modern use cases," shares Dirk, "Our modern architecture called MACH – Microservices-based, API-first, Cloud-Native, and Headless – gives retailers maximum freedom and agility to keep pace with the demands of the market, making our headless commerce platform so unique within the industry."

Which sorts of companies have you worked with to improve their commerce experience and how did they benefit from your approach?
"Companies across nearly two dozen industries are using commercetools to improve their customer experience and to build new digital business models. This goes beyond traditional retail and includes automotive, telecommunications, health care, fashion, manufacturing, grocery, travel and many more," he adds, "Every brand we work with, including Carhartt WIP, Cimpress, EXPRESS, Bang & Olufsen, and others, embrace a headless commerce approach in order to better compete and grow their revenue across all touchpoints."

Why would you say commercetools and Bloomreach are a good fit?
"Bloomreach and commercetools both focus on delivering the best customer experience while increasing flexibility and delivery capability at the same time. Bloomreach is a global leading provider for technologies across the whole customer experience. commercetools is pre-integrated into the Bloomreach architecture to give digital marketers everything at their fingertips. This enables them to deliver best-in-class eCommerce experiences on every touchpoint including real-time personalization."

📌 Read this next: Headless Commerce - From Monolith to Microservices written with commercetools [guide]


Dirk Hoerig, CEO and Co-Founder of commercetools, is responsible for the overall company vision and strategy pursuing the vision to replace traditional on-premise enterprise software with flexible, cloud-native solutions. He aims to help large retailers and brands to seamlessly connect with the "content world" with global eCommerce services and to develop global digital strategies beyond the traditional webshop. 

Dirk Hoerig has already led several internet companies from the seed phase into profitability. In 2001, even as a student of computer science, Dirk founded his first company for online shop development. Five years later, in 2006 he started commercetools. Ever since, commercetools has successfully implemented hundreds of projects both for SMBs and global players such as Cimpress (Tradeprint and Vistaprint), Carhartt Work in Progress, Hasbro, or Rewe.

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